From the former Genographic Project, to 23andMe, autosomal DNA testing companies have added a feature to the DNA results they provide to their customers: what percentage of Neanderthal DNA you carry. This might sound like science fiction to some. How do scientist know what Neanderthal DNA looks like? How are they able to determine if I have any, and if I do, that it is exactly that and not just regular modern human DNA? What does it mean to me personally? This lecture will provide an explanation in understanding your genetic connection to your most distant, ancient ancestors.