Following the founding of the colony of Australia, individuals born in the British Empire were considered British subjects, irrespective of the nationality of their parents. Residents of Australia whose native place was outside of the British Empire were not afforded the same rights and privileges as British subjects. These rights, in particular the right to buy land and vote, could be conferred to an individual by a process known as naturalisation. This bureaucratic process generated multiple sets of records that contain a wealth of genealogical information. This talk will outline the complex history of naturalisation in Australia, the changing terminology used, how, when and why naturalisation records were created, and discuss the likely availability of records and for whom they may have been created.